A great revolution and spectacular progress in the world of cardiovascular surgery is the creation of the artificial heart. We owe this invention to Professor Alain Carpentier, who christened this wonder the “Carmat heart.” The advantages of this artificial heart? Not only is it completely biocompatible, but it is also a battery powered. In addition, this mechanical pump can last up to five years; Thus, it no longer has the main role of keeping patients alive while waiting for a real transplant, because the patient can now lead a more than normal life with his new mechanical heart. Another advantage of this jewel is its ability to self-regulate blood flow, improving the quality of life of the patient, while waiting for a biological heart for transplantation. This invention is expected to reduce the number of deaths from heart disease, however, fewer than 2,000 people have received this type of heart because it is still considered a temporary solution.
Cardiac surgery has also made tremendous progress thanks to Pr Menasché and his team, who were the first to carry out a cell transplant to palliate heart failure. Indeed, when a patient has heart failure, part of his heart is no longer oxygenated, following which, the non-oxygenated cells become necrotic and die. Knowing that cells also have no ability to regenerate, these scientists decided to develop the technique of cell therapy. The goal is to re-implant in the heart of new healthy cells, taken from other muscles of the body. Already with this technique, the risk of rejection is almost zero. According to a case that has already been treated, the cells were removed from the thighs of the patient. These myoblasts were then cultured so that they could obtain nearly a billion in a few weeks. These were then implanted in the heart through cell transplantation, allowing the damaged part of the heart to function, partially.
Creation of the first model of stent
Hans Wallstén is an inventor who is at the origin of the first stent model. It is thanks to him and to his invention that all stent models have been able to develop today. At the base, the stent he designed was a self-expanding, tube-shaped implant made of braided wire. Called “Wallstent”, its initial role was to serve as a vascular endothrombesis and can therefore be either an extensor or a tutor. It is slipped into a natural cavity so that it can be kept open and avoids shrinkage after it has been surgically treated. The obstruction of an artery gives rise to an angioplasty, the purpose of which is to dilate it by means of a balloon.
A last cardiologist famous in the world of medicine: Philippe Bonhoeffer. He is at the origin of the multi-track system. The goal is almost the same as an Inoue system. But the difference lies in the technique. With the role of mitral dilation, the multi-track system is based on a single metal guide for two catheters. The percutaneous approach is thus reduced. But later, the multi-track system is used for a diagnostic system. Indeed, it has taken a big step forward in the diagnostic mode because it will be used to perform a cardiac angiography in the presence of a guide. This greatly facilitates imaging during cardiovascular procedures.